Early detection and integral resection are keys to extend survival in patients suffered from primary angiosarcoma of the spleen: A care-compliant case report and literature review

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Abstract

Rationale:

Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen (PAS) is a very rare malignant neoplasm that originates from endothelial cells of the splenic blood vessels. Without typical clinical presentations and specific radiological features, PAS is very difficult to be early identified and 1-year mortality is extremely high. Late detection and spleen rupture are considered as the most important risk factors for early metastasis.

Patient concerns:

Without any obvious symptom, a 35-year-old woman was admitted with splenic neoplasm that was accidentally discovered through a routine physical examination.

Diagnoses:

The patient was first diagnosed as lymphoma by laboratory tests and imaging studies, but changed to PAS by histological examinations after the surgery.

Interventions:

After careful preoperational assessment, a laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy was scrutinously performed and the entire spleen was removed without any rupture.

Outcomes:

The postoperative followed-up was uneventful until 3 years later, when she sought medical attention due to persisting back pain. Bone metastasis was consequently identified and the symptom was quickly alleviated after radiation therapy. However, intra-abdominal metastases leading to intestinal obstruction occurred 4.5 years after surgery. Following short palliative treatment, the patient passed away 4 years and 9 months after the operation due to multiple organ failure.

Lessons:

PAS is an uncommon and aggressive splenic disease. Once suspected, PAS require prompt and precise surgical procedures to remove the tumor origin. Laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy was technically feasible and therapeutically harmless for PAS treatment compared with open surgery as long as the spleen was removed intact. However, more evaluation of this option will be needed due to limited experience by now. Early discovery, precautious plan, meticulous operation, close follow-up, and comprehensive treatment may significantly prolong the living period of this fatal disease.

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