Risk factors for heart valve calcification in chronic kidney disease

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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aortic and mitral valve calcification (AVC and MVC, respectively) are critical indicators of CVD and all-cause mortality in CKD patients.

We conducted a single center retrospective study of Chinese inpatients with CKD to identify risk factors associated with valve calcification (VC).

Of 288 enrolled CKD patients, 22.9% had VC, all of which exhibited AVC, while 21.2% exhibited MVC. The VC group were significantly older than the non-VC group (70.42 ± 11.83 vs 56.47 ± 15.00, P < .001), and contained more patients with history of coronary artery disease (12.1% vs 4.5%, P = .025) or stroke (18.2% vs 5.4%, P < .001). Subjective global assessment scoring indicated that more VC patients were mid/severely malnourished. Levels of prealbumin, cholesterol (Ch), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein E, ejection fraction, and fraction shortening were significantly lower, and blood C reactive protein, IL-6, left ventricular internal end diastole diameter measured in end diastole, and interventricular septum thickness (IVST) levels were significantly higher in the VC group. Bone metabolism did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age, blood Ch, and LDL levels were significantly associated with VC.

Advanced age, increased IVST, hypocholesterolemia, and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia were key risk factors for VC in Han patients with CKD.

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