Patients with peritoneal metastases (PM) are generally considered incurable; therefore, the presence of PM is a critical factor in deciding between palliative surgery and curative resection as a therapeutic strategy. Previous studies have not determined the predictive value of ascites detected on computed tomography (CT) for the presence of PM. We aimed to analyze the factors that are associated with PM in patients with CT-detected ascites.
A total of 2207 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with gastric cancer between 2004 and 2013 were identified. Eleven patients with liver cirrhosis or chronic renal insufficiency with ascites and 57 patients who received previous treatment were excluded. Ninety-eight patients who had definite evidence of distant metastasis or PM on CT and 64 patients who did not undergo surgery were excluded. A total of 91 patients were enrolled in the study to analyze the association between CT-detected ascites and surgically confirmed PM.
Seventy-six patients underwent curative resection and 15 patients underwent palliative surgery. Twelve patients exhibited peritoneal seeding and 37 patients showed regional lymph node metastasis. Regional lymph node metastasis, advanced gastric cancer, undifferentiated pathology, and the amount of ascites were significantly associated with PM. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the amount of ascites to be an independent risk factor for the presence of PM.
Regional lymph node metastasis, advanced gastric cancer, undifferentiated pathology, and the amount of ascites were associated with PM. The amount of ascites was found to be an independent risk factor for PM.