Two cases of Dieulafoy lesions of the bronchus with novel comorbid associations and endobronchial ablative management

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Abstract

Rationale:

Dieulafoy lesions are aberrantly large submucosal arteries most frequently associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. They are rarely identified in the bronchial submucosa and can cause massive hemoptysis.

Patient concerns:

We present three episodes of massive hemoptysis in two patients, the first with comorbid Alagille syndrome including multiple cardiac and pulmonary vascular abnormalities and the second with thyroid cancer metastatic to the mediastinum.

Diagnoses:

All episodes were due to Dieulafoy lesions of the bronchus based on bronchoscopic appearance.

Interventions:

Bronchoscopic ablation using Nd:YAP laser was attempted both patients.

Outcomes:

Nd:YAP laser successfully ablated the Dieulafoy lesion in the first case with long-term relief from recurrent hemoptysis. The first episode in the second patient responded to bronchial artery embolization; laser ablation of a different Dieulafoy lesion responsible for the second episode was unsuccessful but additional bronchial artery embolization has provided relief from further episodes.

Lessons:

Bronchoscopic ablation of Dieulafoy lesions of the bronchus can provide durable relief from recurrent symptoms. Clinical and anatomical features should be considered carefully before intervention, which should only be attempted by experienced operators with appropriate ancillary support available.

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