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The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not clear; leptin may be related to its pathogenesis.We reviewed articles on leptin in OA, chondrocytes, and in vitro experiments. It is concluded that leptin may lead to OA via some signaling pathways. At the same time, the concentration of leptin in vitro experiments and OA/rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was summarized.Leptin levels in serum and synovial fluid of OA/RA patients were higher than normal person. In the condition of infection and immunity, serum leptin levels in the peripheral blood significantly increase. Because of the close relationship between obesity, leptin, and OA, it is crucial to study the effects of weight loss and exercise intervention on serum leptin levels to improve the symptoms of OA patients.Treatment for leptin-increased obesity may be a treatment for OA. The role of leptin in OA cannot be ignored and needs to be further studied.