Effects of a low salt diet on isolated systolic hypertension: A community-based population study

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Evidence has shown that long-term sodium reduction can not only reduce blood pressure, but also provide cardiovascular benefits. To date, there is little evidence related to the effects of salt reduction on isolated systolic hypertension (ISH).A total of 126 hypertensive patients were divided into an ISH group (n = 51) and a non-ISH (NISH) group (n = 75). The members of each group were then randomly assigned to low sodium salt (LSSalt) or normal salt (NSalt) diets for 6 months. Their blood pressure was measured every 2 months. Serum plasma renin-angiotensin activity, blood biochemical assays and urinary measurements were determined at the baseline and at the end of the 6 months.At the end of the study, the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the ISH LSSalt group had significantly decreased by 10.18 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.13 to 17.2, P = .006) compared with that of the ISH NSalt group, while the mean SBP only decreased by 5.10 mm Hg (95% CI: −2.02 to 12.2, P = .158) in the NISH LSSalt group compared with that of the NISH NSalt group. The mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) had no significant differences in the ISH and NISH groups. No obvious renin angiotensin system activation was found after LSSalt intervention. Regarding the urinary excretion of electrolytes and blood biochemical assays, the LSSalt treatment had the same effects on the ISH group as on the NISH group.The present study showed that the SBP of ISH patients was significantly decreased with the LSSalt intervention, while neither the SBP of the NISH patients nor the DBP of either group were similarly decreased, which indicated that ISH patients were more sensitive to salt restriction.

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