Intraplacental choriocarcinoma coexisting with fetomaternal hemorrhage: Case report, chemotherapy management, and literature review

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Rationale:Near-term intraplacental choriocarcinoma (IC) coexisting with massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is rare, and its clinical course is poorly understood. Here, we report a new case from our hospital, with detailed discussion and literature review.Patient concerns:A 21-year-old Chinese female at 35 weeks gestation was admitted to our hospital due to reduced fetal movement. Near-term IC coexisting with massive FMH was diagnosed after delivery.Intervention:The mother and infant were followed 3 months after delivery. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), pathological examination of the placenta, and computed tomography scans were performed for the mother and β-HCG was performed for the infant.Outcomes:The mother's β-HCG serum level increased from 31,280 IU/L (6 days postdelivery) to 192,070 IU/L (49 days postdelivery), and then steadily fell to 42,468 IU/L (3 months postdelivery) without chemotherapy. The mother died from metastasis and cerebral hemorrhage. The infant survived and his β-HCG serum level fell to within the normal range without chemotherapy.Lessons:FMH associated with near-term IC is a rare disease. Measurement of maternal β-HCG may therefore represent a useful parameter when IC is a possible differential diagnosis. A pathological examination of the placenta should be performed in all cases of FMH to better identify cases of IC. Future research should aim to develop methods of identifying which patients with IC should receive chemotherapy, whether we should use single- or multiagent chemotherapies, and whether there is a positive correlation between chemotherapy regimen and β-HCG serum levels.

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