Comparison of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis


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Abstract

Background:Previous studies seem to show different effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) on cardiovascular (CV) events in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our objective was to analyze which are preferable on the incidence of all-cause mortality, CV death, and major CV events in hypertensive patients with T2DM.Methods:PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to June 2016 with ACEI or ARBs as the intervention for hypertensive patients with T2DM. The primary end points were all-cause mortality and CV death. The secondary end points were myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure (HF), and CV events. Two investigators extracted the information independently. Data were pooled using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model if significant heterogeneity was present.Results:A total of 13 trials were included for analysis, 5 ACEI trials (24,976 patients) and 8 ARB trials (22,032 patients) followed for a mean of 3.8 years. Treatment with ACEI was associated with significantly reduction in all-cause mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.80–0.94], CV death (OR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68–0.98), and other CV outcomes such as MI (0R 0.77; 95% CI, 0.66–0.90), stroke (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78–0.99), HF (OR 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47–0.90), and CV events (OR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73–0.95), whereas ARBs therapy had no significant reduction in the results of many primary and secondary outcomes.Conclusion:This meta-analysis suggests that treatment with ACEI showed a significant CV protection for all-cause mortality, CV death, and major CV events, whereas ARBs had no benefits on these outcomes except MI. In consideration of high mortality and morbidity, ACEI was preferable than ARBs on patients with hypertension and T2DM.

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