Neurolymphomatosis in non-Hodgkin lymphoma with cranial multineuritis: A case report

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Rationale:Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare syndrome of lymphoma and leukemic infiltration of cranial or peripheral nerves.Patient concerns:We report a case of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in a 24-year-old man presented with difficulty in swallowing, hypersalivation, hoarseness, ptosis, facial paralysis, and facial hypoesthesia associated with NL.Diagnosis:NL was diagnosed based upon cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination.Interventions:The patient was treated with intrathecal methotreaxate (12.5 mg) and cytosine arabinoside (70 mg), systemic high-dose methotrexate therapy, and cranial radiotherapy.Outcome:Due to the deterioration of general condition of the patient, he was admitted to intensive care unit, but died 22 days after the onset of symptoms in spite of aggressive treatment.Lessons:In this case, we present a patient with T cell lymphoma and multineuritis of NL diagnosed by MRI and as far as we know, this is the first reported case in which so many cranial nerves (3, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 th) were involved. Briefly, in a patient with hematologic malignancy and neurological complaints, NL should be considered. Early and effective use of imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET-CT), MRI, and aggressive therapies are important for prolonged survival.

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