Fulminant course in a patient with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with bilateral ovarian teratomas: A case report and literature review

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Rationale:Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that can be controlled and reversed by immunotherapy. The presentation of NMDA receptor encephalitis varies, but NMDA receptor encephalitis is seldom reported in patients with both bilateral teratomas and preexisting brain injury.Patient concerns:A 28-year-old female with a history of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage presented acute psychosis, seizure, involuntary movement, and conscious disturbance with a fulminant course. Anti-NMDA receptor antibody was identified in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid, confirming the diagnosis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Bilateral teratomas were also identified during tumor survey.Diagnoses:anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.Interventions:Tumor resection and immunotherapy were performed early during the course.Outcomes:The patient responded well to tumor resection and immunotherapy. Compared with other reports in the literature, her symptoms rapidly improved without further relapse.Lessons:This case report demonstrates that bilateral teratomas may be related to high anybody titers and that the preexisting head injury may be responsible for lowering the threshold of neurological deficits. Early diagnosis and therapy are crucial for a good prognosis in such patients.

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