Value of [18F]FDG-PET/CT and CA125, serum levels and kinetic parameters, in early detection of ovarian cancer recurrence: Influence of histological subtypes and tumor stages

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To assess the diagnostic accuracy of CA125, its kinetic values and positron emission tomography/computed tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG-PET/CT), in relation with tumor characteristics for suspected recurrence of ovarian cancer. To evaluate the performance of CA125-related parameters as a selection criteria to perform a [18F]FDG-PET/CT.A retrospective analysis of 69 [18F]FDG-PET/CT for suspected recurrence of ovarian cancer was performed. All patients had 2 measurements of CA125, before PET/CT, to calculate kinetic values, as CA125vel (CA125vel = [CA125a − CA125b]/time) and CA125dt (CA125dt = [log2 × time]/[logCA125a − CA125b]). Maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. The diagnostic accuracy was calculated for all the variables and the optimal cut-off value of each of them by the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. All the tests were compared with tumor characteristics and clinical-radiological evolution during follow-up of at least 6 months.Fifty-five cases were diagnosed of recurrence (11 with CA125 <35 U/mL), while 14 showed no disease (11 with CA125 < 35 U/mL). All of them were correctly cataloged by PET/CT. CA125, CA125vel, and SUVmax showed higher levels in recurrent patients (mean 129.54 U/mL, 24.58 U/mL per mo, and 8.69 g/mL, respectively) than in nonrecurrent (mean 20.35 U/mL, 0.60 U/mL per mo, and 0.64 g/mL, respectively). No statistical differences in CA125dt were found. Patients with recurrence of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) showed higher CA125 and CA125vel, without differences in the rest of subtypes and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages. The ROC analyses for CA125, CA125vel, and CA125dt showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.873 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77–0.969), 0.903 (95% CI 0.813–0.994), and 0.727 (95% CI 0.542–0.913), respectively, with an optimal cut-off point of 23.95 U/mL, 4.49 U/mL per mo, and 3.36 months, respectively, while for the SUVmax the AUC was of 0.982 (95% CI 0.948–1.000), and the cut-off point of 2. Multivariate regression analysis identified CA125 and CA125vel as predictors of recurrence.[18F]FDG-PET/CT is more accurate than the parameters obtained from the CA125 to detect early recurrence. CA125vel is the most suitable parameter, mainly in HGSC. Levels of CA125vel ≥ 4.49 U/mL per mo facilitate earlier detection by the execution of a [18F]FDG-PET/CT. The calculation of these parameters is independent of tumor stage at diagnosis.

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