Neonatal gastric perforation: a report of two cases and a systematic review

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Abstract

Rationale:

Neonatal gastric perforation is a rare and life-threatening disorder in neonates and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, the exact mechanisms of neonatal gastric perforation remain unknown.

Patient concerns:

In this study, we reported 2 cases of neonatal gastric perforation and conducted a systematic review to analyze the prognostic factors for mortality.

Diagnoses:

Two neonates received a diagnosis of gastric perforation based on clinical presentation and imaging studies. The 2 patients underwent emergent surgery, which yielded favorable outcomes.

Interventions:

We reviewed 168 cases from the literature as well as our 2 cases to analyze whether mortality in neonatal gastric perforation is associated with sex, gestational age, operation type, perforation location, or timing of perforation.

Outcomes:

The results revealed that mortality was significantly higher in preterm neonates (n = 80, P < .01) and the mortality group had a lower birth weight (n = 73, P < .05). The timing of perforation in the preterm subgroup was significantly earlier than that in the full-term subgroup (n = 90, P < .05). The outcomes about mortality of gastric perforation were significantly associated with preterm neonates (adjusted odds ratio: 4.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.28–13.88, P < .05).

Lessons:

This study shows the prognostic factor of gastric perforation was significantly associated with preterm neonates. Furthermore, low-birth-weight full-term neonates had a relatively higher mortality rate than the normal-birth-weight full-term neonates. In addition, preterm neonates have an earlier timing of perforation.

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