Effect of shape on bone cement polymerization time in knee joint replacement surgery

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Abstract

Background:

Although many factors are known to influence the polymerization time of bone cement, it remains unclear which bone cement shape predicts the precise polymerization time. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether different cement shapes influenced polymerization time and to identify the relationship between cement shape and ambient operating theater temperature, relative humidity, and equilibration time.

Methods:

Samples were gathered prospectively from 237 patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty. The cement components were made into 2 different shapes: lump and pan. The time at which no macroscopic indentation of both cement models was possible was recorded as the polymerization time.

Results:

There was no significant difference between hand mixing (lump shape: 789.3 ± 128.4 seconds, P = .591; pan shape: 899.3 ± 152.2 seconds, P = .584) and vacuum mixing (lump shape: 780.2 ± 131.1 seconds, P = .591; pan shape: 909.9 ± 143.3 seconds, P = .584) in terms of polymerization time. Conversely, the polymerization time was significantly shorter for Antibiotic Simplex (lump shape: 757.4 ± 114.9 seconds, P = .001; pan shape: 879.5 ± 125.0 seconds, P < .001) when compared with Palacos R+G (lump shape: 829.0 ± 139.3 seconds, P = .001; pan shape: 942.9 ± 172.0 seconds, P < .001). Polymerization time was also significantly longer (P < .001) for the pan shape model (904 ± 148.0 seconds) when compared with the lump shape model (785.2 ± 129.4 seconds). In addition, the polymerization time decreased with increasing temperature (lump shape: R2 = 0.334, P < .001; pan shape: R2 = 0.375, P < .001), humidity (lump shape: R2 = 0.091, P < .001; pan shape: R2 = 0.106, P < .001), and equilibration time (lump shape: R2 = 0.073, P < .001; pan shape: R2 = 0.044, P < .001).

Conclusions:

The polymerization time was equally affected by temperature, relative humidity, and equilibration time regardless of bone cement shape. Furthermore, the pan shape model better reflected the cement polymerization time between implant and bone compared with the lump shape model. The current findings suggest that, clinically, constant pressure with the knee in <45° of flexion needs to be applied until remaining pan shaped cement is completely polymerized.

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