Sometimes, pleural effusion accompanying an acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection or tuberculous pleurisy has similar analysis results. We report a case of tuberculous pleurisy which was initially diagnosed as acute M pneumoniae infection, which is of special interest because anti-Mycoplasma antibody results were positive, which served as a red herring.Patient concerns:
A 20-year-old woman visited the outpatient emergency romm of our hospital for chief complaints of high fever, dry cough, and pleuralgia persiting for 2 days. Since anti-mycoplasma antibody test results were positive, we treated acute M pneumoniae infection and drained her pleural effusion. The condition tended to improve, but on day 16 postadmission, the acid-fast bacterial culture of the pleural effusion was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Diagnoses:
After the diagnosis, the patient received antituberculous drugs.Outcomes:
She completed treatment with no noticeable adverse events, and the right pleural effusion disappered and diffuse right pleural thickening improved.Lessons:
Exudative pleural effusion with lymphocyte dominance and a high adenosine deaminase level in M pneumoniae infection have been reported. Even though the condition suggests acute M pneumoniae infection, clinicians should be aware that tuberculous pleurisy and M pneumoniae infection can share similar clinical features, and should understand the usefulness and limitations of the anit-Mycoplasma antibody test.