Traumatic fractures resulting from collisions in children and adolescents: A retrospective observational study

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Abstract

To investigate the incidence and pattern of child and adolescent (≤18 years old) traumatic fractures (TFs) as a result of collisions.

We retrospectively reviewed 270 child and adolescent patients (228 males and 42 females aged 12.8 ± 5.1 years old) with TFs as a result of collisions admitted to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2010. The incidence and patterns were summarized with respect to different age groups, sex, etiology, and whether the patient presented with nerve injury.

The most common etiologies were struck by object (105, 38.9%) and wounded by person (74, 27.4%). The most common fracture sites were upper limb fractures (126, 46.7%) and craniofacial fractures (82, 30.4%). A total of 65 (24.1%) patients suffered a nerve injury. The frequency of early and late complications/associated injuries was 35.6% (n = 96) and 8.5% (n = 23), respectively. The mean age (P = .001) and frequency of wounded by person (P = .038) was significantly larger in male than in female patients. The frequency of earthquake injury (P < .001) and lower limb fractures (P = .002) was significantly larger in females than in male patients. The frequency of upper limb fracture was significantly higher in the wounded by machine group (83.3%) than in the other groups (all P < .05). The frequency of lower limb fractures was significantly higher in the earthquake injury group (64.7%) than in the other groups (all P < .05). The frequency of craniofacial fracture was significantly higher in the wounded by person group (54.1%) than in the other groups (all P < .05). The emergency admission rate (P = .047), frequency of wounded by person (P < .001), craniofacial fracture (P < .001), and early complications/associated injuries (P < .001) were significantly larger in patients with nerve injury than in other patients.

Struck by object and upper limb fractures were the most common etiology and site, respectively. Wounded by person and craniofacial fractures were risk factors for nerve injury. Therefore, we should pay more attention to patients wounded by person, presenting with craniofacial fracture, to find whether there is nerve injury.

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