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To investigate the best surgical occasion of laparoscopic cyst decortications (LCDs) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), in accordance with the renal volume (RV). We retrospectively analyzed 135 (65 male and 70 female) patients with ADPKD who underwent LCD between June 2011 and October 2015. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the volume of the operated kidney measured from computed tomography scans: group A (28 patients, RV < 500 mL), group B (63 patients, RV = 500–1000 mL), group C (30 patients, RV = 1000–1500 mL), and group D (14 patients, RV > 1500 mL). We studied postoperative indicators at least 1-year follow-up. For each RV group, therapeutic responses of LCD in these patients with ADPKD were assessed by improvement of clinical parameters and manifestations. A significant glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improvement was found in RV group B (31.8 ± 11.1 mL/min; final GFR 36.9 ± 12.7 mL/min; P < 0.01), and RV group C (21.1 ± 8.7 mL/min; final GFR 27.4 ± 9.2 mL/min; P < 0.01). RV group C had much higher GFR improvements than did RV group B (P < 0.01). In addition, refractory pain in patients of RV groups B, C, and D was much relieved by LCD treatment. Compared with other RV groups, blood pressures in patients with ADPKD of RV group D were also improved (P < 0.01). Our study indicates that RV could be used to evaluate LCD clinical outcomes in patients with ADPKD. The results of LCD for patients with ADPKD with RV between 500 and 1500 mL were encouraging, especially with regards to renal function improvement and pain relief. Therefore, RV may become a useful marker to predict the timing of LCD surgery in patients with ADPKD.