Effect of combined therapy with catheter-directed thrombolysis and factor Xa inhibitor for inferior vena cava thrombosis: A case report

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Abstract

Rationale:

Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is an under-recognized entity that is associated with a mortality rate approaching twice that of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Thrombolytic therapy not only results in greater lysis, but also results in higher complication rates than anticoagulation alone. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), which is effective in accomplishing local resolution whilst reducing bleeding complications, has been established as an alternative treatment for patients with extensive DVT.

Patient concerns:

We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted due to warmness, pain, and swelling in his left leg and a feeling of gait disturbance.

Diagnoses:

Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and venous ultrasonography revealed a pulmonary embolism and extensive DVT spreading to the IVC.

Interventions:

First, the patient was treated with fondaparinux. Since this was inadequate, he underwent CDT using a Fountain infusion catheter. Then, CDT was switched to direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) treatment.

Outcomes:

Both CDT and subsequent DOAC treatments dramatically improved the DVT. His subjective symptoms have disappeared, and no recurrence of thrombosis has been identified.

Lessons:

The present case showed the therapeutic effect of CDT, which preceded DOAC treatment, on an extensive DVT.

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