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Very few cases of secondary peritonitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae have been described in the literature, and they have been found to occur mostly in patients with predisposing factors. Here, we report the case of an elderly patient who developed pneumococcal peritonitis secondary to perforation of gastroduodenal ulcer.An 82-year-old man was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for septic shock with cardiac impairment 1 day after arriving in the Emergency Department.The patient presented with pneumococcal bacteremia and pneumococcal antigenuria. No abdominal defense was found on examination. A computed tomography scan revealed pneumoperitoneum and peritoneal effusions.The patient was treated with effective empiric antibiotic therapy, and delayed surgery.The patient gradually improved and was discharged from ICU on day 14. The ultimate outcome was unfavorable, with death occurring on day 28.This rare infection can occur in elderly patients even in the absence of other predisposing factors. Secondary peritonitis may be suspected in patients with positive pneumococcal antigenuria or unexplained pneumococcal bacteremia, especially if an asthenic form is possible.