Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ischemic heart disease. However, the association between GGT and long-term mortality has not been studied in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
A total of 2239 AMI patients for whom serum GGT values were available and who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled in the COREA-AMI (CardiOvascular Risk and idEntificAtion of potential high-risk population in Korean patients with AMI) registry. Patients with acute liver injury were excluded. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to normal (n = 1983) or elevated (n = 256) levels of serum GGT. The primary clinical outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome was cardiac death and recurrent non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI).
The median follow-up period was 3.7 years, and both groups had similar characteristics. Patients with elevated GGT had significantly higher all-cause mortality compared to patients with normal GGT (21.9% vs. 14.4%, P = .001). The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that elevated serum GGT level was independently correlated with mortality (hazard ratio 2.12[1.44–3.11]; P < .001). Although elevated serum GGT was independently associated with long-term mortality after 30 days after PCI, there was no association within 30 days after PCI. Elevated GGT was also associated with death of cardiac causes with statistical significance. In the subgroup analysis, stronger associations were observed in the young and female patients and in patients who had ST-segment elevation MI and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction at the first echocardiography after the indexed PCI.
Elevated serum GGT is an independent predictor of long-term mortality in AMI patients.