Ganglioglioma of the adenohypophysis mimicking pituitary adenoma: A case report and review of the literature

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Abstract

Introduction:

Ganglioglioma is a generally benign tumor, mostly occurring in patients <30 years old. Temporal lobe is most frequently involved. Up to now, only 3 cases were reported of ganglioglioma in the pituitary gland, all being confined to the neurohypophysis. Here, we are the first to report an adenohypophysis ganglioglioma.

Case presentation:

A 43-year-old woman presented with chronic headache was referred to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated pituitary adenoma. Endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery was performed. The tumor was rich in blood supply, with tough texture, therefore only subtotal resection was conducted. Pathology analysis revealed an adenohypophysial tumor composed of dysplastic ganglion cells and neoplastic glial cells collided with nonspecific hyperplasia of pituitary cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed positive staining of synaptophysin, glial-fibrillary acidic protein, and CD34. The results were consistent with the diagnosis of ganglioglioma. After the surgery the patient recovered well except developing cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, which was controlled by lumbar drainage. MRI 6 months later did not show any sign of progression.

Conclusion:

According to the findings of our case, concerns should be raised considering ganglioglioma as a differential diagnosis of mass located in the sellar region. Furthermore, an ideal management strategy for pituitary ganglioglioma is not known; therefore, more cases and long-term follow-up are needed to enrich our knowledge of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this rare intracranial lesion.

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