Increased intracranial pressure in Guillain–Barré syndrome: A case report

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Abstract

Rationale:

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating polyneuropathy that affects most of the peripheral nervous system. Papilledema and raised intracranial pressure (ICP) are seen in some patients, and are thought to be associated with elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein—though CSF protein levels are normal in some patients, thus the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Interleukin (IL)-17 levels are elevated in the CSF and plasma in GBS patients, and elevated IL-17 in the CSF of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension has been reported. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) exerts therapeutic effects by downregulating IL-17 in GBS patients.

Patient concerns:

Herein we describe a case of a 14-year-old girl who initially presented with relapsing limb weakness.

Diagnoses:

Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enlarged ventricle, electromyography, and nerve conduction studies were suggestive of polyradiculopathy, and lumbar puncture revealed elevated ICP with normal cells and elevated protein values.

Interventions:

She was treated with IVIG 0.4 g/kg per day for 5 days.

Outcomes:

At a 6-month follow-up there had been no recurrence.

Lessons subsections:

In GBS patients who have a relapsing course and develop papilledema with possible immunological disturbance, an accurate early diagnosis in conjunction with the prompt initiation of immunotherapy may improve clinical symptoms and the prognosis.

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