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Either liver transplantation or surgical resection is available for selected patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. However, the comparative effectiveness between liver transplantation and liver resection remains unknown. The aim of our study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness between liver transplantation and surgical resection in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.We will systematically search for eligible studies in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane library. The primary outcomes are overall survival rates including 1-, 3-, or 5-year survival rates. The second outcomes are postoperative complications. The summary results will be pooled using the random-effects model or fixed-effects model according to the heterogeneity of the included studies.The results will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication.This study will provide a comprehensive evidence summary of the comparison between liver transplantation or surgical resection in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.