Therapeutic effect of intensive glycemic control therapy in patients with traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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Abstract

Background:

Hyperglycemia is associated with dismal outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is frequently treated with insulin therapy. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to assess the safety and efficacy of intensive glycemic control (IGC) versus conventional glycemic control (CGC) for patients following TBI.

Methods:

Databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochran database, were retrieved up to January 2018. The outcomes evaluated in this study included mortality, neurological outcome, infection rate, hypoglycemia episode, and length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU). The enrolled trials were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 software.

Results:

A total of 7 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1013 cases were enrolled in this study, and the results indicated no significant difference in 6-month mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.10; P = .34). Subsequently, IGC was associated with a better neurological outcome (RR, 1.22; 95% CI 1.05–1.43; P = .01), lower infection rate (RR, 0.65; 95% CI 0.51–0.82; P = .0003) and shorter LOS in ICU (mean difference [MD] = –1.37; 95%CI = –2.11, –0.63; P = .0003). In addition, IGC would also increase the risk of hypoglycemia episode (RR, 4.53; 95% CI 2.18–9.42; P < .001).

Conclusions:

IGC plays a protective role in improving neurological outcome, decreasing infection rate and reducing the LOS in ICU. However, IGC therapy can also remarkably increase the risk of hypoglycemia, but it will not affect the mortality in TBI patients.

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