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Literature reporting on lumber brucella spondylitis (LBS) is rare, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of one-stage surgical management for lumber brucella spondylitis by anterior debridement, autogenous grafts, and instrumentation. This was a retrospective cohort study including 16 patients with lumber brucella spondylitis by treated from January 2009 to October 2011 in our department. All cases underwent one-stage anterior internal fixation, debridement, and bone fusion; clinical and radiographic results were analyzed and compared. All patients were followed up for an average of 35.3 ± 8.1 months (range, 24–48 months). Brucella spondylitis was completely cured in all patients with bone fusion achieved in 4.8 ± 1.3 months. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were significantly improved between the preoperative and last follow-up visit and neurological function classification showed significant improvement after surgical intervention. Preoperatively, the Cobb angle was 20.7 ± 9.8°, and measured 8.1 ± 1.3° at the last follow-up visit. The outcomes of follow-up demonstrated that one-stage surgical treatment with anterior debridement, fusion, and instrumentation can be an effective and feasible treatment method for lumber brucella spondylitis.