Factors affecting pain during outpatient clinic based surgical procedures in gynecologic oncology

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Abstract

Colposcopy-directed punch biopsy (punch biopsy) and endocervical curettage (ECC) are accompanied by considerable pain. However, many physicians perform these procedures without adequate pain management. Therefore, identification of factors affecting pain experienced during the procedures may encourage physician effort in selective pain management. This study investigated factors affecting the severity of pain experienced during punch biopsy and ECC in an outpatient clinic of gynecologic oncology department.

In this retrospective, exploratory study, a total of 101 Korean patients with abnormal cervical cytology underwent punch biopsy and ECC under a paracervical block performed for pain relief. Residents under training performed these procedures and recorded patient-reporting maximum Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores experienced during the procedures. Residents were classified into four outpatient clinic training groups (1st–4th); the group designators correspond to the resident's experience in performing these procedures. A linear mixed model adjusted for physician factors such as either residents or outpatient clinic training groups was used to analyze the association between each variable and maximum NRS score.

Among the outpatient clinic training groups, maximum NRS scores significantly decreased in the 4th group, compared with those in the 1st group although those were not different among groups when adjusted for residents. Some of cervical cytology findings and discrepancies between the severity of cervical cytology results and those of punch biopsy or ECC showed significant associations with maximum NRS scores. However, when adjusted for either residents or outpatient clinic training groups, maximum NRS scores were not different by age, body mass index, presence of menopause, cervical cytology findings, discrepancies between the severity of cervical cytology results and those of punch biopsy or ECC, and tissue volume.

There are no significant factors affecting the severity of pain experienced during punch biopsy and ECC.

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