Risk factors and treatment of venous thromboembolism in perioperative patients with ovarian cancer in China

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The aim of this study was to assess the major risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Chinese patients with ovarian cancer and to explore optimal methods of prophylaxis and treatment.

A retrospective analysis of patients from Qilu Hospital of Shandong University was conducted from January 1, 2014, to January 1, 2017. We analyzed 388 patients who underwent surgery with a final diagnosis of ovarian cancer, of whom 35 developed VTE. Risk factors for preoperative and postoperative VTE were investigated. Preoperative patients with VTE were treated with anticoagulant therapy; chemotherapy with carboplatin paclitaxel was administered for 2 or 3 courses before cytoreductive surgery.

Fifteen patients were diagnosed with preoperative VTE and 20 with postoperative VTE. Eight of these 35 patients were also diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE), and 1 patient died. Univariate analysis showed differences in age, preoperative D-dimer value, platelet count, preoperative chemotherapy, operative time, and cardiovascular disease according to the presence or absence of VTE. In multivariate analysis, age 55 years and older, tumor diameter greater than 10 cm, preoperative platelet count greater than 300  × 109/L, and a D-dimer value greater than 0.5 μg/mL were independent risk factors for preoperative VTE, whereas a D-dimer value greater than 0.5 μg/mL and surgery time greater than 150 minutes were independent risk factors for postoperative VTE. Four preoperative patients with PE who underwent treatment with anticoagulant therapy and chemotherapy with carboplatin paclitaxel had disappearance of signs of PE and their ascites and mass sizes decreased substantially, leading to subsequent optimal cytoreduction.

Preoperative screening and perioperative preventive measures should be taken in gynecological oncology surgery, especially when patients have risk factors identified in this study. For patients with ovarian cancer who have been diagnosed with thrombosis before surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and anticoagulant drugs can be used to control the progression of thrombosis and cancer.

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