Ovarian masses are one of the most frequently identified entities in gynecological practice. Early differential diagnosis is a key factor in the medical management of each patient. Transvaginal ultrasound along with additional preoperative testing, such as serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) levels and the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) score, usually provide sufficient information for a presumptive diagnosis. Minimally invasive surgery as a therapeutic approach is the standard procedure for uncomplicated and benign adnexal masses. Histopathological examination alone, or in conjunction with immunohistochemical testing establishes a more certain diagnosis in the final step of the patient management plan. We developed a retrospective descriptive observational study based on the evaluation of 107 patients admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at “Sf Pantelimon” Clinical Emergency Hospital in Bucharest between January 2000 and July 2017. Each patient was diagnosed with an ovarian mass and underwent laparoscopic surgery for treatment. All data underwent descriptive statistical analysis in order to establish correlations between preoperative test results and definitive diagnoses. The typical ultrasound findings of endometriotic cysts were histopathologically confirmed in 52.6% of the examined patients. Using ultrasound, benign teratomas were suspected in 66.6% of all documented dermoid cysts and 90% of the patients with a calculated ROMA score had corresponding values less than 15%. Mean CA-125 value was 26.58 U/mL. Laparoscopic surgery with ovarian cystectomy was performed for 78.5% of the cases. Histopathological examinations established endometriosis was present in 26.16% of cases. According to an independent samples t test (with 2 extreme values eliminated), patients in the premenopausal group had a significantly lower mean ROMA score than postmenopausal patients (6.87% vs 20.98%, respectively; P < .001). The groups had similar homogeneity (P = .131 according to the Levene test). Our results showed that transvaginal ultrasound established a presumptive diagnosis for almost half of our patients. Cystectomy was the main surgical procedure used for the management of benign ovarian masses. Endometriosis was the most common benign ovarian pathology evaluated and treated in our study.