Epidemiology and major subtypes of congenital heart defects in Hunan Province, China

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Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defects (BDs) and account for nearly one-third of all BDs. The aim of this article was to investigate the epidemiology and major subtypes of CHDs in Hunan Province, China in the last 5 years.

CHD surveillance data from 2012 to 2016 were collected from 52 registered hospitals in Hunan. The prevalence rates of CHDs, incidence rates of CHDs combined with other BDs, and rates of termination of pregnancy (TOP) for CHDs among different regions, infant sexes, and maternal ages were calculated for both early fetuses (<28 weeks of gestation) and perinatal infants (PIs) (between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth). Both the constituent ratio and prevalence rates were computed among subtypes.

CHDs were found in 6289 out of 673,060 births. The overall prevalence was 93.44 per 10,000 PIs, with 19.27 and 74.17 per 10,000 in early fetuses and PIs, respectively. The risks of CHDs were higher in infants from urban areas than those from rural areas during the whole gestation and were higher in male infants than in female infants during the perinatal period. The total prevalence of CHDs increased significantly with maternal age (χ2 trend = 141.84, P < .05). Among fetuses in early gestation, there were 288 cases (22.21%) of CHDs combined with other BDs and 1292 cases (99.61%) of TOP for CHD. The 3 major subtypes of CHDs were ventricular septal defect (VSD) (22.06%), Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (9.43%), and atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) (6.69%). Among PIs, there were 1541 cases (30.87%) of CHD diagnosed before delivery and 1184 cases (76.83%) were TOP. The 3 major subtypes were atrial septal defect (ASD) (42.81%), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (16.07%), and VSDs (15.21%).

The total prevalence of CHD in Hunan Province and the rate of TOP for CHD was high, especially for early-gestation fetuses. Pregnancies in urban women, male PIs, and maternal age were the risk factors for CHDs. Among early-gestation fetuses, the most common types were VSD, TOF, and ASD, and among PIs, the most common types were ASD, PDA, and VSD.

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