Sufficient drainage is very important for preventing wound complications after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of calcaneal fractures. However, the drainage amount varies among patients. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with increased postoperative drainage after ORIF of calcaneal fractures.
A retrospective study including 87 patients with 92 calcaneal fractures in our hospital was performed. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they had increased drainage, which was defined as a total drainage of ≥340 mL (50th percentile). We gathered the following data on each patient: age; sex; smoking history; body mass index (BMI); American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification; fracture type; the time from injury to surgery; operative time; bone grafting; preoperative labs including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), hematocrit, and D-dimer level; and histories for hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the risk factors associated with increased drainage.
Total drainage ranged from 105 to 1185 mL, and the average drainage for this cohort was 393.6 ± 232.4 mL (mean ± standard deviation). 57.6% (n = 53) of patients had increased drainage. Smoking history, Sanders type, operative time, and bone grafting were significantly associated with increased drainage on univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis then demonstrated that active smoking and higher Sanders type were independent risk factors for increased drainage.
Patients with calcaneal fractures who smoked or had a higher level of Sanders type had a higher risk of increased postoperative drainage. Therefore, we suggest that active precautions be taken for these patients to reduce the rate of postoperative wound complications.