Novel frame shift mutation in ERCC6 leads to a severe form of Cockayne syndrome with postnatal growth failure and early death: A case report and brief literature review

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Introduction:Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare multisystemic autosomal recessive disease. The primary manifestations of which are developmental delay, neurological impairment, abnormal skin sensitivity to sunlight and unique facial appearance as sunken eyes, large ears, and thin large nose. The disorders of the nucleotide excision repair system significantly are caused by mutations of Excision repair cross-complementing group 6 (ERCC6) and Excision repair cross-complementing group 8 (ERCC8) genes, and the ERCC6 gene mutations are present in approximately 65% of cases.Case presentation:Here we described a girl in a consanguineous Jordanian family with abnormal facial appearance and postnatal growth delay. She was not able to gain weight. Her condition deteriorated progressively and she developed difficulty of swallowing even to water. The patient was diagnosed as CS based on her facial appearance and neurologic dysfunction. The patient was examined at 3 years old, and died at 4 years old.Conclusion:Genetic analysis and sequencing revealed homozygosity for a novel frame shift mutation c.2911_2915del5ins9 (p.Lys971TryfsX14) in the ERCC6. The mutation is predicted to delete 5 nucleotides and add 9 nucleotides with a premature termination, resulting in approximately 34% length reduction of the wild-type transcript. The multisystem malformations of CS are clinically heterogeneous. The frame shift mutation of ERCC6 found in this patient is a novel one, which caused postnatal growth failure and early death. Our findings indicate truncated mutation in CS lead to more severe CS phenotype and add to the genotype–phenotype correlations in CS.

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