Clarithromycin-based triple therapy is prescribed worldwide for Helicobacter pylori eradication. However, increases in the clarithromycin resistance of H pylori are thought to be responsible for eradication failure. Here, we studied whether point mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene can affect H pylori eradication failure in a prospective, open-label, observational study. Of the 755 enrolled patients, 299 patients (39.6%) had positive Campylobacter-like organism (CLO) tests. DNA sequencing analysis of H pylori 23S rRNA in 295 patients revealed that 2143G was the most frequent point mutation (24.7% of patients), followed by the 2182T mutation (11.5%). The overall eradication failure rate was 20.9% (42/201) in clarithromycin-based triple therapy. Patients with the 2143G had an approximately 60% eradication failure rate, which suggested that 2143G was a high-risk genotype for eradication failure. Patients with the 2182C genotype without 2143G had an 8.7% failure rate, and patients without 2143G or 2182C had only a 4.3% failure rate. The presence of 2143G, which was associated with previous eradication history and female sex, was an independent risk factor for eradication failure. In conclusion, the 2143G point mutation in the 23S rRNA of H pylori was an independent risk factor for eradication failure in clarithromycin-based triple therapy. Personalized tailored therapy based on the genotypes of 23S rRNA can increase eradication success rates in H pylori infections.