Prostate-specific antigen is not useful for detection of prostate cancer in Chinese men. The major problems in prostate cancer patients are overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that targeted biopsy is an accurate diagnostic tool for prostate cancer detection than standard biopsy in Chinese men.
Total, 998 patients whom multiparticulate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging had revealed at least 1 lesion in the prostate were included in a cohort. Patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy followed US-guided biopsy. Benefits of a diagnostic test were evaluated by decision curve analysis. Patients who were diagnosed as having prostate cancer by either of biopsies were subjected to radical prostatectomies followed by whole-mounted pathology (n = 578). Spearman rank correlation was performed between the biopsy results and the subtype of prostate cancer at 99% of confidence level.
With respect to whole-mounted pathology, for US-guided biopsy, MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy, and combined data of both biopsies, sensitivities were 0.973, 0.983, and 0.973 and accuracies were 0.837, 0.91, and 0.917, respectively. MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy (P = .165) and combined data of both biopsies (P = .182) had the same specificity to whole-mount pathology. However, a US-guided biopsy had not the same specificity to whole-mount pathology (P = .0003). Decision-making zones for radical prostatectomy of different biopsies were in the order of combined data of both biopsies >MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy >US-guided biopsy.
Only the targeted biopsy is recommended for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.