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Residual renal function (RRF) is an important determinant of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Different dialysis types may have different effects on RRF. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to examine the RRF protective effect of different dialysis types for hemodialysis patients.A systematic search was performed on PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Dialysis types included low-flux hemodialysis (LFHD), high-flux hemodialysis (HFHD), hemodiafiltration (HDF), and hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (HD+HP). The mean of endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCR) and urea clearance rate (Curea), or urine volume was used to estimate RRF [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 6.05–16.80].There were 12 articles involving 1224 patients, including 11 random controlled trials and 1 cohort study. Meta-analysis showed that the RRF protective effect of HFHD [mean difference (MD) = 1.48, 95% CI (2.11 to 0.86), P < .01] and HD+HP [MD = 0.41, 95% CI (0.69 to 0.12), P = .005] was better than that of LFHD, and the RRF decline rate was the lowest in HFHD group [MD = 0.13, 95% CI (0.17 to 0.09), P < .01]. Descriptive analysis showed that HDF could better protect RRF when compared with LFHD. However, there was no consistency among other interventions when removing LFHD due to limited data.For patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, the HFHD, HD+HP and HDF may better protect RRF, compared with LFHD.