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Familial hydatidiform mole is extremely rare while familial gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) has never been reported. Inspired by 2 biological sisters with postmolar GTN and liver toxicity, we reviewed susceptible maternal-effect genes and explored the role of possible drug transporter genes in the development of GTN.We reported one Chinese family where the two sisters developed postmolar GTN while experiencing fast remission and significant hepatic toxicity from actinomycin D chemotherapy.The index pregnancy was diagnosed with curettage. The following GTN was confirmed when there was a rise in beta-hCG for three consecutive weekly measurements over at least a period of 2 weeks. Computed tomography was used to identify lung metastasis. The elder sister was diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (III: 2) while the younger sister was diagnosed as III: 3 according to WHO scoring system.Patients were treated with actinomycin D of 10 μg/kg intravenously for 5 days every 2 weeks. When hepatic toxicity was indicated, polyene phosphatidyl choline and magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate were prescribed.Both patients responded extremely well to the 5-day actinomycin D regimen. Beta-hCG remained less than 2 mIU/ml after 5 cycles while computed tomography scan showed downsized pulmonary nodules. Both experienced significant rise in ALT and AST levels that could be ameliorated with corresponding medication. Monthly followed-up showed negative beta-hCG levels and normal liver enzyme levels.We speculated that the known or unknown NLRP7 and KHDC3L mutations might be correlated with drug disposition in liver while liver drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein family that are also expressed in trophoblasts might be correlated to GTN susceptibility. Future genomic profiles of large samples alike using next generation sequencing are needed to confirm our hypothesis and discover yet unknown genes.