Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2 receptor agonist, this study aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of intranasal dexmedetomidine on the preoperative sedation and postoperative agitation in pediatric with total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for adenoidectomy with or without tonsillectomy.
This is a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Pediatric were randomly divided into the D1, D2, and S groups, each group contained 30 patients. Twenty-five to 40 minutes before surgery, the D1 and D2 groups received intranasally dexmedetomidine 1 μg kg−1 or 2 μg kg−1, respectively, while the S group received saline of the same volume. A unified protocol of TIVA induction and maintenance was used for the three groups. The preoperative sedation, behavior of separation from parents, postoperative agitation, and postoperative pain of the children were evaluated.
The proportions of satisfactory sedation in the D1, D2, and S groups were 63.3%, 76.7%, and 0%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between D1 and S groups (P = .000) and D2 versus S groups (P = .000), while there was no statistically significant difference between D1 and D2 groups (P = .399). As for scale on the behavior of separation from parents, there was a statistically significant difference between D1 and S groups (P = .009) and D2 versus S groups (P = .009), whereas there was no significant difference between D1 and D2 groups (P = 1). The incidence of postoperative agitation in the D1, D2, and S groups was 43.3%, 30.0%, and 63.3%, respectively, and there was a statistical difference between D2 and S groups (P = .010). There was a significant difference in the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale between D2 and S groups (P = .029). The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS) in the D2 group was significantly lower than the S group (P = .013).
The intranasal dexmedetomidine of 1 or 2 μg kg−1 25 to 40 minute before induction of anesthesia both could deliver effective preoperative sedation, reducing the children's distress of separation from parents. Moreover, intranasal dexmedetomidine of 2 μg kg−1 could deliver more effective postoperative analgesia and reduce postoperative agitation, without prolonging postoperative recovery or causing severe adverse events.