Glial tumors constitute the majority of primary intracranial brain tumors. The expression of specific markers of lymphangiogenesis in gliomas still remains unclear.
A total of 40 surgical specimens from 20 patients with recurrent gliomas were included in the study. The expression of D2-40, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, and VEGF receptor-3 (VEGR-3) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The clinicopathologic data (p53 and Ki67) were also collected and analyzed.
At relapse malignant transformation rate was 65% (13/20 cases). D2-40, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and VEGFR-3 were expressed in 20%, 30%, 60%, and 20% of primary and 45%, 30%, 75%, and 35% of recurrent glioma tumors (P < .01, P = 1.00, P = .03, P = .03). In 13 cases with increased malignancy grade, the expression of Ki67 and p53 were higher at relapse compared with the primary tumors (P = .001, P = .045). Multivariate survival analysis showed VEGF-D was an independent prognostic factor for malignant transformation (HR = 0.376, P = .045).
Glioma is easy to relapse with tumor progression. VEGF-D was an independent prognostic factor for malignant transformation.