Coinfection with cryptococcus and aspergillus in an immunocompetent adult: A case report

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Rationale:Aspergillus and Cryptococcus exposure can cause serious secondary infections in human lungs, especially in immunocompromised patients or in conjunction with a chronic disease caused by low disease resistance. Primary invasive fungal infections are clinically rare; therefore, coexistence of 2 fungi at an infection site is uncommon. This paper reports a case of healthy male who was diagnosed with both Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus infections.Patient concerns:A healthy 33-year-old male office worker was admitted to the Second Hospital of Jilin University for hemoptysis. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed a cavity, which was formed by the thick dorsal wall of the lower left lobe with an irregular inner wall and burr changes around the lesion.Intervention:After 1.0 week of antibiotic and antituberculosis treatment, the hemoptysis symptoms remained. A resection of the left lower lobe was performed.Diagnoses:The postoperative pathological reports indicated the presence of both Aspergillus and Cryptococcus. The 2 fungal lesions were separate but within the same location.Outcomes:After treatment, the patient no longer had hemoptysis.Lessons:The current study indicated that fungi can infect not only immunocompromised patients but also healthy people, and that there can be 2 separate fungal infections at the same infection site.

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