Malakoplakia as a cause of severe hypercalcemia through ectopic 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase expression: A case report

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Malakoplakia is a rare disease characterized by the presence of nongranulomatous macrophage infiltration. In most cases, it affects the urinary tract. Malakoplakia can cause acute kidney injury when it is localized in the kidneys.

Patient concerns:

Here, we report the case of a 65-year-old female patient with renal malakoplakia responsible for hypercalcemia. During her initial assessment, she was also diagnosed 25-OH vitamin D insufficiency, for which she was prescribed oral cholecalciferol. Three months later, she developed severe hypercalcemia with normal 25-OH vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels and high 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels.


After a superimposed granulomatous disease was excluded, malakoplakia cells were suspected to be responsible for the abnormal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.


Cholecalciferol was stopped, the patient was rehydrated with intravenous physiological saline, and prednisone was initiated to decrease the enzyme activity.


Six months later, she displayed normal serum calcium, 25-OH vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels.


This case illustrates that malakoplakia may exhibit ectopic 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity and cause severe hypercalcemia upon vitamin D supplementation. Therefore, such supplementation should not be given in malakoplakia patients without an actual deficiency and requires careful monitoring of serum calcium.

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