|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Our study was aimed to comprehensively compare the relative efficacy, safety, and the cost of transcatheter closure, mini-invasive closure, and open-heart surgical repair to treat perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pmVSDs) in children using network meta-analysis method.Five databases were systematically searched including Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, EMBASE.com, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from the starting date of each database to February 2017. Tools for assessing the risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) were used to evaluate the risk of bias in observational studies and Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0 was used for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data were analyzed using R-3.4.0 software and Review Manager 5.2.Three RCTs and 24 observational studies were included in our study. Network meta-analysis result demonstrated that transcatheter closure was the most effective treatment in terms of operative time [standardized mean difference (SMD) = −2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): −3.92 to −0.12], major complications [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.30–0.91], ICU stay (SMD = −1.11, 95% CI = −2.13 to −0.08), and hospital stay (SMD = −1.81, 95% CI = −2.24 to −1.39). However, open-heart surgical repair showed a higher success rate of the procedure than transcatheter closure (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.17–0.77).Statistical analysis result demonstrated that transcatheter closure had the best potential to lessen major complications, ICU stay, hospital stay, operative time, and significant residual shunt.Transcatheter closure has more benefit than mini-invasive closure and open-heart surgical repair to treat pmVSDs.