Isolated extradural Rosai–Dorfman disease causing the spinal cord compression: A case report

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Rationale:Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare benign histiocytic disease that is commonly characterized by massive painless cervical lymphadenopathy and systemic manifestations. Isolated extranodal involvement, especially spinal involvement, is extremely rare.Patient concerns:A 28-year-old man presented with intermittent dorsodynia and bilateral lower-limb weakness and numbness. A magnetic resonance scan (MRI) showed an extradural lesion of the T6-T9 thoracic spine that lead to cord compression.Diagnoses:Histopathological findings showed distinctive emperipolesis and immunohistochemistry results that were positive for cluster of differentiation CD68 and S100. Therefore, we diagnosed the Rosai-Dorfman disease.Interventions:we performed a nearly total surgical resection and a limited T6-T9 laminectomy.Outcomes:Postoperatively, the patient's symptoms were partially relieved and experienced no recurrence during the 6-month follow-up. The preoperative diagnosis of isolated spinal RDD still remains challenging.Lessons:Thus, we should consider RDD in the differential diagnosis of the central nervous system. Besides surgical resection, the treatment also included radiation, chemotherapy or monoclonal antibodies. However, the optimal treatment remains controversial. Therefore, we should exert all our energies on the exploration of etiology and adjuvant therapy for this disease.

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