One of the risk factors for vascular obstetric complications, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is inherited thrombophilias. Nevertheless, routine screening for thrombophilias is not endorsed in pregnant women due to their low prevalence and conflicting results of published studies regarding the usefulness of screening in these patients. The cause of IUGR remains unknown in almost 1 quarter of cases. There are no published studies evaluating the association of inherited thrombophilias and IUGR in patients with IUGR of unknown origin. Understanding and preventing IUGR is an important public health concern, as IUGR has been associated with fetal mortality and neonatal morbidity, as well as adverse long-standing consequences. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in IUGR of unknown cause and to test the association between the inherited thrombophilias and IUGR of unknown cause.
This study included 33 cases of IUGR of unknown cause tested for inherited thrombophilias and 66 controls individually matched for age, ethnicity, and smoking status.
Patients with plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) had significantly higher odds for IUGR of unknown cause (P < .001 and P = .002, respectively) with OR 13.546 (CI 95% 3.79–48.37) and 8.139 (CI 95% 2.20–30.10), respectively. A positive association between other inherited thrombophilias (homozygous 20210 prothrombin gene mutation and homozygous factor V Leiden) and IUGR of unknown cause was also found, P = .096, OR 6.106 (CI 95% 0.72–51.30), although it was not statistically significant (P = .096, OR = 6.106, CI 95% 0.72–51.30).
Our results indicate that PAI-1 and MTHFR thrombophilias represent risk factors for IUGR of otherwise unidentified cause.