Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture: Single-center experience with 38 patients

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Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture (BTDR) is uncommon, but is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present our experience with management of this injury. Medical records of 38 patients with BTDR who were treated in our hospital from January 2001 to June 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. The sex, age, cause of injury, location of rupture, mode of diagnosis, time to diagnosis, the presence of herniation and bowel perforation, the presence of preoperative shock and intubation, Injury Severity Score (ISS), associated injuries, comorbidity, the operative procedure, morbidity and mortality, and the predictive factors affecting the outcome of BTDR were evaluated. There were 32 men (84.2%) and 6 women (15.8%) with a mean age of 51.2 years (range 18–84 years). The diagnosis could be preoperatively established in 28 patients (73.7%) with a plain chest X-ray or computed tomography scan. Rupture of diaphragm was left-sided in 31 patients (81.6%), right-sided in 6 (15.8%), and bilateral in 1 (2.6%). Sixteen patients had preoperative shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, heart rate >120/min). Initial operative approaches were laparotomy in 22 patients (57.9%) and thoracotomy in 16 (42.1%). Eleven required additional exploration. The rate of additional exploration was higher in patients who initially underwent thoracotomy than laparotomy (56.2% vs 9.1%, P = .003). Patients who underwent additional exploration had a significantly longer operation time (330 minutes vs 237.5 minutes, P = .012), and a significantly higher morbidity rate (72.7% vs 22.2%, P =.008). Overall mortality was observed in 6 patients (15.8%). The mortality was associated with right-sided TDR (P = .042) and preoperative shock (P = .003). Neither ISS nor delay in diagnosis posed a statistically significant risk to the outcome of patients. Intra-abdominal organ injuries are more common than intrathoracic injuries in patients with BTDR, indicating that laparotomy should be the initial approach in these patients. Preoperative shock and right-sided TDR are predictive of mortality after BTDR.

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