|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The aims of this study were to determine damage index in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients based on Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index (SDI) and to determine the laboratory and clinico-demographic factors affecting SDI.This is a retrospective cohort study of 94 SLE patients attending rheumatology clinics in 2 local hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on SDI score assigned by the attending physician, 0 (without damage) or ≥1 (with damage). Newly diagnosed SLE patients with disease duration less than 6 months were excluded.A total of 45 (47.9%) SLE patients showed damage by SDI score. Majority of the subjects had neuropsychiatric damages (21/94; 22.3%) followed by skin (12/94; 12.8%) and musculoskeletal (6/94; 6.4%) damage. SDI score was significantly associated with higher disease duration (6.2 ± 6.57 years vs 4.5 ± 3.7 years; P = .018), lower prednisolone dose (8.74 ± 10.89 mg vs 4.89 ± 3.81 mg; P < .001), hypertension (P = .007), and exposure to cyclophosphamide (P = .004). Hypertension (P = .020), exposure to cyclophosohamide (P = 0.013), and lower prednisolone dose (P = .023) were significantly associated with damage by multivariable analysis.Higher SDI score was significantly associated with exposure to cyclophosphamide, suggesting that lower cyclophosphamide doses or alternative therapeutic agents are recommended.