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Cataracts can occur in children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus who have poorly controlled glycemia. Here, we report a case of a 16-year-old female, who was diagnosed with bilateral cataracts, and genetic screening identified a mutation in the PRRC2A gene which is rarely reported. After surgery, retinopathy was found in this patient, combined with the published literature, we encourage that postoperative monitoring for retinal lesions during the follow-up visits should be conducted.In this article, we present an adolescent diagnosed with bilateral cataracts, and developed retinopathy during the follow-up visits. Genetic screening identified a mutation in the PRRC2A gene.The diagnoses of Diabetic cataracts, Type 1 diabetes and Diabetic retinopathy was made.The patient underwent surgery in both eyes, and hypoglycemic treatment was provided.The surgery achieved satisfactory results, during the follow-up visits, her visual acuity was reported as 0.8 in the right eye and 1.0 in the left eye. Besides, her blood glucose was well controlled, and her glycated hemoglobin was reduced to 6.9% after three months of continuous treatment.This case highlights the importance of genetic screening for detecting mutations in diabetes-related genes, and postoperative monitoring for retinal lesions during the follow-up visits.