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Accumulating evidence has reported that prolonged periods of sedentary time have been recognized as a risk factor for cardiocerebrovascular disease. However, whether high levels of sedentary behavior are associated with an increased risk of cardiocerebrovascular disease in different regions remains unclear.The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sedentary behavior and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in Jiangxi Province of China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 15,364 participants in Jiangxi Province of China from November 2013 to August 2014, using standardized questionnaire forms and physical measurements. Self-reported sedentary behavior in daily life and a history of MI and stroke were conducted by answering the questionnaire. The participants were examined for weight, height, waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat index (VAI), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and blood pressure (BP). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between sedentary behavior and the risk of MI and stroke after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and disease-related risk factors.Of the 15,364 eligible participants, 13,710 participants (5604 men and 8106 women, aged 15–97 years) completed the questionnaire. Subjects who had longer sedentary behavior were significantly associated with an increased risk of MI and stroke [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.168–1.281, P < .001; OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.50–1.67, P < .001]. After stratification by the categorical variable of sedentary behavior, individuals with a longer time of sedentary behavior (≥8 hours) were also related to a higher risk of MI and stroke than those in the sedentary behavior (<4 hours) group (OR = 176.62, 95% CI: 43.33–719.90, P < .001; OR = 478.52, 95% CI: 118.50–1932.36, P < .001). However, there were no significant differences between individuals in the short time of sedentary behavior (<4 hours) group and the middle time (4–8 hours) group (p > 0.05).Excessive time spent in sedentary behavior was associated with a higher risk of MI and stroke. The results provide robust evidence to support the guideline recommendations regarding reduction of sedentary behavior in daily life.