Primary Philadelphia chromosome positive acute myeloid leukemia: A case report

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Rationale:Philadelphia chromosome positive acute myeloid leukemia (Ph+ AML) is a rare subtype of AML that is now included as a provisional entity in the 2016 revised WHO classification of myeloid malignancies. However, a clear distinction between de novo Ph+ AML and chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis is challenging. It is still a matter of debate whether Ph+ AML patients should be treated with chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line therapy.Patient concerns:We reported here a case of a 46-year-old man who was diagnosed as Ph+ AML. This diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow pathology and karyotype analysis of 46, XY, t (9; 22). Further examination, molecular genetic analysis showed BCR/ABL1 (p190) without ABL1 kinase domain mutations, and direct evidence demonstrated in AML by flow cytometry.Diagnosis:The diagnosis of Ph+ AML was made on May 2016 according to morphology, immunology, cytogenetic, and molecular criteria, and multiple organ failure was also diagnosed.Interventions:The patient was treated with dasatinib as the only medication after experiencing multiple organ failure. Then, he received 2 cycles of chemotherapy with IA (idarubicin 8 mg/m2, day 1–3; cytarabine 100 mg/m2, day 1–7) in August, 2016.Outcomes:The patient finally achieved a complete molecular remission.Lessons:This case study suggests that dasatinib can be a safe and effective treatment for Ph+ AML patients with poor physical condition.

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