X-linked lymphoproliferative syndromes (XLPs) are rare, yet often fatal primary immunodeficiency diseases, which rarely manifest as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) complicated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Clinical data of a case of XLP-2 manifesting as LCH complicated with HLH was retrospectively analyzed to determine the etiology and causal gene.Patient concerns and diagnosis:
The diagnosis of multisystem LCH was confirmed by skin biopsy and other examinations in a 13-month boy with recurrent ear discharge, fever and hemorrhagic papules for 3 months. A good therapeutic response to LCH-III protocol-directed induction chemotherapy was achieved but unremitting HLH developed 6 weeks after the initiation of induction chemotherapy. To identify possible underlying genetic causes, gene mutation analysis was undertaken. A novel XIAP gene mutation (c.99delT, p.F33fsX37) was documented.Interventions:
After the diagnosis of HLH had been confirmed, HLH-2004-directed chemotherapy was instituted.Outcomes:
The clinical condition of the patient had become progressively deteriorating after 8-week chemotherapy of HLH-2004 protocol, requiring frequent infusions of RBC suspensions and apheresis platelets. His parents decided to receive no further therapy, and the patient died soon after discharge.Lessons:
Meticulous laboratory investigations including genetic studies should be undertaken in young children with LCH complicated with HLH and poor therapeutic response.