Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts island sign in patients with intracranial hemorrhage

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Abstract

Our previously studies indicated that inflammatory responses are involved in the hematoma expansion (HE) after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) ictus. Here, we aim to evaluate the correlations among the ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), HE, and island sign in patients with ICH.

Patients with spontaneous ICH were retrospectively included. Clinical characteristics, imaging features, and laboratory parameters were obtained. Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the association of NLR with HE or island sign. Receiver-operator analysis was also used to estimate their predictive abilities for HE and its imaging features.

A total of 279 patients were enrolled in present study, and 78 patients had early hematoma growth, while 43 of them exhibited island sign. Elevation of both leukocyte (odds ratio [OR] 1.136, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.037–1.245, P < .01) and neutrophil absolute numbers (OR 1.169, 95% CI 1.065–1.284, P < .01), as well as reduction of lymphocyte counts (OR 0.052, 95% CI 0.016–0.167, P < .01) were strongly associated with the existence of island sign. Moreover, despite the predictive ability of NLR on the existence of island sign (OR 1.063, 95% CI 1.036–1.090, P < .01), it also showed the best predictive accuracy (sensitivity 76.74%, specificity 79.66%, positive predictive value 40.70%, negative predictive value 94.90%, area under the curve 0.817) by comparing with peripheral leukocyte counts.

The NLR could be used as an independently marker for reflecting the island sign in patients with ICH. Our findings indicated that systemic inflammatory responses might be involved in the pathologic process of active bleeding in cerebral.

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