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The benefit gained by replacing physicians in the prehospital service is still controversial. The present study compared the difference of achievements of pre-hospital emergency between the physicians from public hospitals and those from the Emergency Medical Center.We included prehospital emergency patients who were sent to the hospital by ambulance after emergency calls from February 1 to May 31, 2016, in Shanghai (24,250,000 inhabitants). Cohort characteristics and diagnoses were described, and the data were analyzed using the Shanghai Emergency Medical Center's database software. We determined whether the physicians from public hospitals were associated with greater success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and examined the diseases category and the number of patients with cardiac arrest in prehospital emergency patients.During February 1, 2016, to May 31, 2016, the total turnout of ambulances in the urban area of Shanghai was 107,341 times, among which, first aid was 55,053 times. The number of patients with cardiac arrest was 3012, the 3 principal causes for cardiac arrest were Unknown diagnosis (45.19%), Cardiovascular disease (28.02%) and Respiratory diseases (11.09%), and the successful rate of CPR was 1.56%. The number of critically ill patients, encountered by the physicians from public hospitals, was 10.33% as compared to those from the Emergency Medical Center, which was 11.77% (P < .001). Although the success rate of CPR of the physicians from public hospitals was lower than that of the physicians from the Emergency Medical Center (1.22–1.58%), it did not achieve statistical significance (P > .05).Transferring the physicians from public hospitals to work in Emergency Medical Center showed no improvement in the success rates of resuscitation.