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An intracranial arachnoid cyst is a relatively common congenital benign lesion. A small number of patients present with neurological symptoms. Endoscopic fenestration has become a common treatment for arachnoid cysts in recent years, but intracerebral hematoma after surgery is rarely reported.A 60-year-old woman with an arachnoid cyst in the left parietal and occipital lobes showed obvious progressive neurological deficits. She had weakness in her right limbs for 2 years and a sudden convulsion in her left limbs.An arachnoid cyst in the left parietal and occipital lobes was detected on magnetic resonance imaging.Endoscopic fenestration was performed for the cyst. However, she developed an intracerebral hematoma after surgery, which was detected by computed tomography. Due to the exacerbation of the patient's condition in the early stage after surgery, reoperation was performed to remove the hematoma.The patient was finally cured with no serious neurological deficits.The rare complication of intracerebral hematoma after surgery for an arachnoid cyst can lead to a rapid deterioration in the patient's condition. More-adequate preoperative examination and neuronavigation should be conducted during surgery. Appropriate enlargement of the bone hole may help protect against this complication. Moreover, prompt reoperation for the intracerebral hematoma may improve the prognosis.